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Q: I am about to select a major in engineering and would like to know the best major to select in order to excel in Nanotechnology. I hear that Nanotechnology holds enormous promise and can be helpful in areas from cleansing the air to treating bacterial infections. What schools, domestic and international, would you recommend?
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Q: What are the opportunities in industry for holders of a Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) degree in Electronics and Telecommunications (E&TC) Engineering or Electronics (EC) Engineering?
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Q: I have a B.E. degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from an Indian institute. At present I am working In New Delhi, India as a VLSI front-end design engineer. I wish to pursue MS degree in the USA in the area of Automated Intelligent control Systems, Telerobotics, and Avionics.
Could you please suggest some universities in the USA which have a strong research in these areas?

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Q: I am from India, currently enrolled in the final year of an undergraduate engineering program. I would like to pursue studies toward a Master of Science degree in the United States. How would I go about it? Should I take the GRE? When should I take the exam? When does the typical academic year start there?
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Q: I live in the State of Maharashtra (Pune city) in India, and am currently enrolled in a high school there. When I graduate from high school I will have completed my HSC (12th Grade exam).

I have two questions:

(1) Do you know what the minimum requirements are from each Indian State or high school affiliation for university admission in Computer Science or Computer Engineering? If so, what is the minimum cutoff for a person who has completed his/her HSC exam in Pune, Maharashtra?

(2) What are the minimum academic, as well as non-academic, requirements for a graduate of a high school in India to be admitted to a US university for undergraduate studies in Computer Science or Computer Engineering?

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Q: I plan to be working with embedded systems in the future. What course of studies should I choose � computer engineering or electronics engineering? I reside in Mumbai, India.

An embedded system is [1] a special-purpose system in which the computer is completely encapsulated by the device it controls. Unlike a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer, an embedded system performs pre-defined tasks, usually with very specific requirements. Since the system is dedicated to a specific task, it can be optimized for the task, reducing the size and cost of the product. Embedded systems are often mass-produced, putting an emphasis on economical and manufacturing-ready design (manufacturability).

The dividing line between general-purpose computers and embedded systems is sometimes blurry, since some devices that were considered classical embedded systems such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and cellular phones operate today in modes that are more typical of a general purpose computer. Examples of embedded systems include [1] automatic teller machines (ATMs); inertial guidance systems for avionics; computer subsystems such as routers and printers; engine controllers and antilock brake controllers for automobiles; home automation products, like thermostats and security monitoring systems; control modules for household appliances, such as for microwave ovens, washing machines, television sets, and DVD players/recorders; and videogame consoles.

The embedded system field is multidisciplinary, requiring practitioners to have knowledge and skills in control and signal processing, electronics, computer engineering, computer science, telecommunication, and specific application domains. Consideration of safety, security and manufacturability are similarly important. Subsequently, one can find tracks and courses in embedded systems offered in many curricula, including computer engineering, computer science, electrical engineering, electronics engineering, control and automation, mechatronics, and mechanical engineering (e.g., [6]).

The question you pose, whether to choose electronics engineering or computer engineering for embedded system study requires an answer which depends on the geographical location of your school.

In the United States and Canada most embedded systems education is done in computer engineering departments, though some foresee the subject branching and becoming its own discipline [2].

The position of embedded systems in the engineering curriculum of universities in Western Europe is often hard to define. Due to the wide variety of curricula that carry courses and tracks in embedded systems (computer science, computer engineering, electrical engineering, electronics engineering, automatic control, and even mechanical engineering), we can only suggest that prospective students check whether the program they are considering has a track or a sufficient number of courses in embedded systems.

Review of embedded systems offerings in universities in India indicates that related courses are taught both in electronics engineering and computer engineering programs. For example [3], embedded systems appear as one of the electives in the scheme prescribed by the University of Mumbai in both electronics engineering and computer engineering programs. Review of the other classes in these two curricula (using the University of Mumbai system as the example) suggests that the electronics engineering program has more courses relevant to embedded systems than the typical computer engineering curriculum. Our "vote" would therefore be for an electronics engineering program in this case.

Students in Korea have increased access to education on imbedded systems as a result of a recent governmental program that develop five new educational tracks in this area. These tracks are offered to students of computer engineering and software engineering [5].

[1] �Embedded Systems,� in Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (viewed 25 August 2006)

[2] "A Concentration Track in Embedded Systems," description of an NSF EI project (viewed 25 August 2006)

[3] R.E. Seviora: "A curriculum for embedded system engineering," ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS), Volume 4, Issue 3, pp. 569 � 586, August 2005.

[4] Engineering Syllabi, Dwarkadas J. Sanghvi College of Engineering (viewed 25 August 2006)

[5] Suehee Pak et al.: �Demand-Driven Curriculum for Embedded System Software in Korea,� Proceedings of the 2005 Workshop on Embedded Systems Education (WESE) 22 September 2005, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA

[6] David Jeff Jackson and Paul Caspi: �Embedded Systems Education: Future Directions, Initiatives, and Cooperation,� Proceedings of the 2005 Workshop on Embedded Systems Education (WESE) 22 September 2005, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA

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Q: I write from Bangalore, India. I study toward a diploma in Mechanical Engineering and wish to join later a part time Bachelor of Engineering program. Can this be done in either one of the following locations; Bangalore, Chennai, and Ajmer?
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Q: I write from the state of Maharashtra in India. I have a choice of studying for a Bachelor of Engineering degree in Electronics and Telecommunication in one of two colleges. The first is located 5 minutes away from my house. The second is Sardar Patel College of Engineering (SPCE), one of the best in Mumbai. However, if I go to SPCE, I will need one hour daily to commute there.

Once I earn the B.E. degree I want to do graduate-level work in aerospace engineering or work in the aerospace industry (either in India or in North America).

Which of the two colleges should I choose?

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Q: Let me please know the potential of Nanotechnology education, and the list of universities offering Masters and Doctoral degree in Nanotechnology.
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Q: I consider several undergraduate programs available in my country with the intent of doing research (and possibly some graduate work) later in the area of nanotechnology in Japan.

I have two questions:

(1) Would it be better for me to study chemical engineering or electrical engineering as an undergraduate?

(2) What are some of the institutions that do nanotechnology research in Japan?

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